What Materials Are Used For Metal 3D Printing?
Metal 3D printing is a technology which belongs to the digital thermal processing, the preparation of 33D metal printing technology mainly includes: selective20000mw laser melting / sintering (SLM/SLS), EBSM (EBSM), laser near net forming (LENS) etc.. Compared with the traditional process, the metal 3D printing has a direct forming, no mold, it can realize the personalized design and production of complex structure, high efficiency, low consumption, low cost and so on. But because it is a digital thermal processing, deformation is not eliminated, the amount of deformation from the process and experience to control, and finally through the CNC machine tools, such as the late processing.
Market applications of metal 3D printing materials
Application of metal 3D printing materials widely, for example, petrochemical engineering application, aerospace, automobile manufacturing, injection molding, light metal alloy casting, food processing, medicine, papermaking, power industry, fashion jewelry, etc.. However, because of the material properties of the metal 3D printing material itself, it has a specific application domain, so the process of selecting the metal 3D printing material is a process of weighing multiple factors. Moreover, 3D printing metal not only by virtue of the parameters of the metal 3D printer to a constant, each kind of metal materials are suitable for the characteristics of limit points, including the application, function, stability, durability and appearance and economic factors are the designer to consider. Today, the domestic and foreign metal 3D printers are generally used: tool steel, martensitic steel, stainless steel, titanium and titanium alloy, aluminum alloy, nickel base alloy, copper base alloy, cobalt chromium alloy, etc..
Tool Steel and Martensitic Steel
Tool steel, tool steel and martensitic steel, for example, the applicability of tool steel comes from its excellent hardness, wear resistance and deformation resistance, as well as the ability to maintain the cutting edge at high temperature. Die H13 hot work tool steel is one of them, can withstand the uncertain conditions of time; martensitic steel, martensite in 300 as an example, also known as the "maraging steel", in aging process of high strength, toughness and dimensional stability are as everyone knows. They are different from other steels because they do not contain carbon and belong to intermetallic compounds. They are hardened by the metallurgical reaction of nickel, cobalt and molybdenum. Due to the high hardness and wear resistance, application, martensitic 300 is suitable for many molds such as injection molding, light metal alloy casting, stamping and extrusion, at the same time, it is also widely used in aerospace, high strength body parts and car parts.
Stainless steel and carbon steel is different, the current chromium content is different, the 10.5% chromium content of the lowest steel alloy, stainless steel is not easy to rust corrosion. Currently, there are three kinds of stainless steel used in metal 3D printing: austenitic stainless steel 316L, martensitic stainless steel 15-5PH, martensitic stainless steel 17-4PH. 316L austenitic stainless steel, high strength and corrosion resistance can be decreased to a low temperature in a wide temperature range, can be used in aerospace, petrochemical and other engineering applications, can also be used in food processing and medical fields. Martensitic stainless steel 15-5PH, also known as martensite aging (precipitation hardening) stainless steel, with a high strength, good toughness, corrosion resistance, and can be further hardening, is no ferrite. At present, widely used in aerospace, petrochemical, chemical, food processing, paper and metal processing industry. Martensitic stainless steel 17-4PH, with a high strength, high toughness, and corrosion resistance at high to 315 degrees Celsius, with the laser 3000mwprocessing status can bring excellent ductility.
Metal 3D printing material is the most widely used metal powder alloy mainly has pure titanium and titanium alloy, aluminum alloy, nickel base alloy, cobalt chromium alloy, copper base alloy, etc.. Pure titanium and titanium alloys are currently used in the market of pure titanium, also known as commercial pure titanium, is divided into 1 and 2 powder, the 2 level is stronger than 1, for most applications also have a corrosion resistance. Because of the good biocompatibility of pure titanium 2, it has broad application prospects in the medical industry. Titanium is the key of titanium alloy industry. At present, the titanium alloy used in metal 3D printing is mainly titanium alloy 5 and titanium alloy 23, because of its excellent strength and toughness, corrosion resistance, compatibility with low specific gravity and biology, so in the aerospace and automobile manufacturing has very good application, and, because of high strength, low modulus fatigue resistance is strong, used in the production of biomedical implants. Titanium alloy 23, higher purity, dental and medical grade titanium is the level of God like.
Aluminum At present, the metal used in 3D aluminum printing aluminum AlSi12 AlSi12 and AlSi10Mg two. Aluminum silicon 12, is a good thermal properties of the light by the manufacture of metal powder, can be applied to thin-walled parts such as heat exchangers or other auto parts, can also be used in aerospace and aviation industry-level prototype and production of zero Parts; silicon / magnesium combination makes aluminum alloy more strength and hardness, making it suitable for thin-walled and complex geometric shapes of parts, especially in good thermal performance and low weight occasions.
Nickel-base alloys In general, nickel-based alloys have good resistance to tensile, fatigue and thermal fatigue resistance. At present, there are Inconel 738, Hastelloy X, Inconel 625, Inconel 713, Inconel 718 and so on. Inconel 738 has a good high temperature creep rupture strength, thermal corrosion resistance is a lower chromium content of the superalloy, long-term exposure to high temperatures up to 920-980 ? corrosive environment, for aircraft engines, gas turbines. Hastelloy X has high strength and resistance to oxidation at high temperatures and is also ductile in environments up to 1200 ° C and is currently used in aerospace technologies such as gas turbine components and combustion zone components such as transition tubes, combustion Cans, blowpipe, exhaust pipe, afterburner, etc .; but also because of resistance to stress corrosion cracking performance, used in industrial furnaces, petrochemical and chemical process industries. Inconel 625 at high temperature of about 815 ? under the conditions still has a good load performance, and corrosion resistance, widely used in aerospace, chemical and power industry. Inconel 713 has excellent thermal fatigue resistance, as well as the special fracture strength at 927 ?, suitable for jet engine gas turbine blades. Inconel 718 is based on an iron-nickel hardened superalloy with excellent corrosion resistance and resistance to heat, tensile, fatigue and creep. It is suitable for a variety of high-end applications such as aircraft turbines and land-based turbines.
Co-Cr alloy Co-Cr alloys have high strength, good corrosion resistance, good biocompatibility and non-magnetic properties, mainly used in surgical implants, including alloy artificial joints, knee and hip joints, but also can be used Engine components and fashion, jewelry industry.
Copper-based alloys used in the market for copper-based alloys, commonly known as bronze, have good thermal conductivity and conductivity, can be combined with design freedom to produce complex internal structures and cooling channels, suitable for cooling more efficient tools to insert molds such as semiconductor devices , Can also be used for micro-heat exchanger, with a thin wall, the shape of complex features.
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